Fundamentals Of Computer

The computer is a boon for today's world. It has changed the world completely. With the use of a computer, many tasks have become easy. With the development and increase in the uses of computers in today's world, a person needs to know what computers are and how to use them to do his/her world in the best possible ways using a computer.

Table of Contents:

1.1 Introduction To Computer

A computer is an electronic device that accepts input in the form of data, process the input data, and provide meaningful output result. Data are raw facts are unprocessed information collected from various sources and those data are processed to give meaningful output also called information.

1.2 Working Principle of Computer

As the definition goes(accept data, process the data, and give meaningful output), the working system is Input, Processing, and Output. In these three steps, a computer performs its functions.


The computer takes input through input devices like a keyboard, mouse, joystick, etc. Through input devices, instructions or data are fed or given to the computer for further processing.


The input data/instructions are processed based on the given set of input or instructions and after processing the data are converted into meaningful information. Processing devices are used to process the input data. The main processing device of the computer is the CPU(Central Processing Unit).


After processing the input data, the computer gives meaningful information, results, or output through output devices like a monitor, printer, speaker, etc.

is the working principle of the computer. Computers perform their tasks under this principle.

1.3 Characteristics of a Computer

The following are some characteristics of a computer:

High Speed

A computer is a very high-speed electronic device. Millions of information processed in computers are processed in a fraction of a second. Computer speed is measured in MegaHertz(MHz) or GigaHertz(Ghz).


A computer is a 100% accurate machine. It can never produce inaccurate information. If the input is correctly given to a computer then the computer produces the correct output and if the input is wrongly given, the computer then gives the wrong output. In computer language, it is called GIGO(Garbage-In-Garbage-Out).


A computer never gets bored or tired of processing tasks repeatedly. It can continuously process the work without creating any errors.


A computer is called a versatile machine because it is used for a variety of tasks in different fields like education, business, hospitals, banks, airports, astronomy, science, office, home, and others.

Large Storage Capacity

A computer can store a large amount of data if the storage capacity is more. It can quickly recall the information from the storage device if needed. Storage capacity is measured in Bits, MegaByte, GigaByte, TeraBytes, PetaBytes, and so forth.


A computer can perform and complete the task automatically if the instructions are programmed and given to it. It will complete or run the task automatically, according to the given instructions.


A computer is called a reliable machine because it gives consistent and accurate results under the given conditions or inputs every time.

1.4 Application of Computer

The computer is a versatile machine and it is used in various fields. Such as at home, in education, in medical and hospitals, in the banking sector, in entertainment, in science experiments,  in business and industries, in astronomy, while traveling, in agriculture, in defense, and many more. You can yourself see the use of computers around your surroundings, or city.

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